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Propagation of SLF/ELF Electromagnetic Waves. Excited by an Underground HED in the Lower. Ionosphere. Yuan-Xin Wang, Rong-Hong Jin, Member, IEEE, .
Table of contents
Energy and particle budgets of radiation belts, with account of cyclotron acceleration and precipitation will be considered. For that purpose, semi-empirical and strict theoretical models of chorus generation will be developed. Properties of ducted and non-ducted propagation of whistler waves will be analysed. Formation of coherent clusters from noise in coupled electron and whistler wave phase space will be studied.
Parthasarathy, S. The study comprised of assessment at the transmission lines on 3 different cases and locations in Klang Valley, specifically on a vacant land near the transmission line, inside and around the house at the vicinity of the transmission line and the area directly under the transmission line. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE Standard.
The results showed that the measured field strengths are within the safety limit with the highest measured exposure was Both the field strengths were found to drop significantly against distance from the transmission lines where closer distances showed higher field strengths. Furthermore, the study revealed that buildings and other object such as trees and shrubs screen out the electric field, resulting in a lower value at indoor measurements and near the stated objects. In addition, higher value of electric and magnetic field strengths were recorded when assessment was being done directly under the transmission line compared to the lateral measurement.
A research has been done to study the effects of magnetic fields on the growth of plants. Two samples of maize seedlings and green beans have been studied. Helmholtz coil systems were used as magnetic field source at frequency 50 Hz with mGauss field strength. Sample characteristics such height, leaf, colour and length of roots were observed. The results show that the magnetic field influenced the growth of the sample. The sample that were exposed to the magnetic field show faster growth compared to the controlled sample. Penetration of ELF currents and electromagnetic fields into the Earth's equatorial ionosphere.
The penetration of extremely low frequency ELF transient electromagnetic fields and associated currents in the Earth's equatorial E-region plasma is studied theoretically and numerically. In the low-frequency regime, the plasma dynamics of the E-region is characterized by helicon waves since the ions are viscously coupled to neutrals while the electrons remain mobile. For typical equatorial E-region parameters, the plasma is magnetically insulated from penetration of very long timescale magnetic fields by a thin diffusive sheath.
Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available This article presents a systematic review of most cited studies from developed countries those shed light on the potential relation between childhood leukemia and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ELF -EMF. All the findings of articles critically segregated as per some neglected parameters like number of samples, exposure duration, frequency range, distance from the radiation sources, and location during measurement of magnetic field density near power lines.
Zhamaletdinov, A. This article is devoted to describing the theory, technique, and first experimental results of a control source electromagnetic CSEM study of the Earth's crust and ionosphere with the use of two mutually orthogonal industrial transmission lines and km in length in the frame of FENICS Fennoscandian Electrical Conductivity from Natural and Induction Control Source Soundings experiment. The main part of the measurements is executed on the territory of the Fennoscandian shield at distances from the first hundreds kilometers up to km from the source with the purpose of the deep electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle.
According to the results of these studies clarifying the parameters of "normal" standard geoelectric section of the lithosphere to a depth of km, the anisotropy parameters are evaluated and a geothermal and rheological interpretation in conjunction with the analysis of the seismic data is executed. According to the results of these studies , the experimental estimates of the influence of the ionosphere and of the displacement currents on the propagation of ELF -ULF waves in the upper half-space at the different azimuths generation of the primary field are obtained.
In this paper, the main outlines of the ELFE at DESY project are describes and the problems associated with the scenario proposed in july are reviewed. The results of the feasibility study recently carried out are presented and the achievable performances of the extracted beam in terms of emittance, energy spread and duty factor are given.
- Propagation of SLF/ELF Electromagnetic Waves.
- The electromagnetic spectrum.
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Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ELF -EMF reduces oxidative stress and improves functional and psychological status in ischemic stroke patients. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields ELF -EMF can modulate oxidative stress, but there are no clinical antioxidant studies in brain stroke patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ELF -EMF on clinical and antioxidant status in post-stroke patients.
Both groups underwent the same 4-week rehabilitation program. The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was measured in hemolysates, and total antioxidant status TAS determined in plasma. Clinical parameters had positive correlation with the level of enzymatic antioxidant protection. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ELF -EMF on catalase, cytochrome P and nitric oxide synthase in erythro-leukemic cells. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields ELF -EMFs are widely employed in electrical appliances and different equipment such as television sets, mobile phones, computers and microwaves.
The altered balance between ROS generation and elimination plays a critical role in a variety of pathologic conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, aging and cancer. Actually, there is a disagreement as to whether there is a causal or coincidental relationship between ELF -EMF exposure and leukemia development. Increased ROS levels have been observed in several hematopoietic malignancies including acute and chronic myeloid leukemias.
In our study , the effect of ELF -EMF exposure on catalase, cytochrome P and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and their expression by Western blot analysis in myelogenous leukemia cell line K was evaluated. These new insights might be important in establishing a mechanistic framework at the molecular level within which the possible effects of ELF -EMF on health can be understood. All rights reserved. A health examination of railway high-voltage substation workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields. This is a cross-sectional survey on the health conditions of railways workers active in interconnection and conversion substations all over Italy.
All subjects underwent a general medical examination, laboratory investigations, and a series of selected examinations relative to three systems nervous, cardiovascular, and haematopoietic considered at higher risk. No differences have been found between the exposed and the control groups. It is concluded that workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields of moderate strength do not show the presence of clear effects on their state of health.
Properties of ELF electromagnetic waves in and above the earth's ionosphere deduced from plasma wave experiments on the OV and Ogo 6 satellites. An analysis of ac electric field data obtained on board the OV satellite and ac magnetic field data obtained on board the Ogo 6 satellite has been made during the northern hemisphere spring and summer of with the purpose of studying extreme low frequency ELF electromagnetic waves above the earth's ionosphere.
The results are in basic agreement with a number of previous ground-based and low-altitude satellite experiments in that the peak signal was observed at high latitudes outside the statistical location of the plasmapause on the day side of the earth, that ELF chorus was very often observed in conjunction with the steady ELF hiss emissions, that the winter hemisphere signal was considerably smaller than that observed in summer or in equinoctial months, and that the emission strength and region of occurrence are asymmetric about magnetic noon.
Observations of such strong hiss signals outside the plasmasphere are somewhat surprising in light of Ogo 3 and Ogo 5 measurements which show steady ELF hiss to be closely confined to the plasmasphere at high altitudes during normal circumstances. The present study supports the hypothesis that hiss leaks out of the plasmasphere and refracts downward into the lower ionosphere; such a model predicts the observed summer-winter asymmetry and the poleward skewing of the ELF peak signal strength with decreasing altitude.
Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields ELF -EMF on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat. Results Blood lipids showed, at 48 h stimulated animals, a significant increase of cholesterol associated to high density lipoproteins HDL-C than those observed at any other studied time. Free fatty acid serum presented at 24 h significant increases in comparison with control group.
The other serum lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol did not show differences between groups, at any time evaluated. Attenuation bands and cut-off frequencies for ELF electromagnetic waves.
Rauch, J. Unambiguous determinations of the wave normal directions are obtained from the interpretations of the measurements of four 3 magnetic, 1 electric wave field components. The technique that is used, is based on the Means method in the cases of highly polarized waves and on the Storey and Lefeuvre WDF method in the other cases.
A particular emphasis is put on the propagation characteristics of the waves, in a multiple ion plasma, and on the cut-off frequencies which appear at and below the local proton gyrofrequency. After the Tohoku earthquake EQ , there have been numerous aftershocks in the eastern and Pacific Ocean of Japan, but EQs are still rare in the western part of Japan.
Two precursory signatures are detected: one is the depression of ULF ultra-low-frequency, 0. Inhibition of Salmonella typhi growth using extremely low frequency electromagnetic ELF -EM waves at resonance frequency. Typhoid is a serious disease difficult to be treated with conventional drugs. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a new method for the control of Salmonella typhi growth, through the interference with the bioelectric signals generated from the microbe during cell division by extremely low frequency electromagnetic waves ELF-EMW-ELF -EM at resonance frequency.
Both the control and exposed samples were incubated at the same conditions during the experiment. The results showed that there was highly significant inhibition effect for Salm. This new non-invasive technique for treatment of bacterial infections is of considerable interest for the use in medical and biotechnological applications. ELF EMF radiation have received considerable attention as a potential threat to the safety and health of people living in the vicinity of high voltage transmission lines, electric distribution substations, power stations and even in close proximity to electronics and electrical household appliances.
The paper highlights the study on the ELF EMF safety assessment performed at residences comprising of an owner-occupied house, a completed vacant house and an under construction condominium. The objectives of this study were to determine the ELF EMF radiation exposure level from the high voltage transmission line, electric distribution substation, power station and electrical household appliances in the residences, and to assess the potential exposure received by the occupants at the assessed locations. Data of lightning discharge has been focused on as an effective way for monitoring and nowcasting of thunderstorm activity which causes extreme weather.
Spatial distribution of lightning discharge has been used as a proxy of the presence or absence of deep convection. Latest observation shows that there is extremely huge lightning whose scale is more than hundreds times bigger than that of averaged event. This result indicates that lightning observation should be carried out to estimate not only existence but also scale for quantitative evaluation of atmospheric convection. In this study , lightning observation network in the Maritime Continent is introduced.
This network is consisted of the sensors which make possible to measure electromagnetic wave radiated from lightning discharges. Observation frequency is 0. Sampling frequency is kHz. Waveform of electromagnetic wave is recorded by personal computer. We have already constructed observation stations at Tainan in Taiwan Furthermore, we plan to install the monitoring system at Los Banos in Philippines Data obtained by multipoint observation is synchronized by GPS receiver installed at each station.
By using data obtained by this network, location and scale of lightning discharge can be estimated. Location of lightning is determined based on time of arrival method. Accuracy of geolocation could be less than 10km. Furthermore, charge moment is evaluated as a scale of each lightning discharge. It is calculated from electromagnetic waveform in ELF range kHz. At the presentation, we will show the initial result about geolocation for source of electromagnetic wave and derivation of charge moment value based on the measurement of ELF and VLF sferics.
Assessment of every day extremely low frequency Elf electromagnetic fields Hz exposure: which metrics? Because electricity is encountered at every moment of the day, at home with household appliances, or in every type of transportation, people are most of the time exposed to extremely low frequency E. Due to a lack of knowledge about the biological mechanisms of 50 Hz magnetic fields, studies seeking to identify health effects of exposure use central tendency metrics.
The objective of our study is to provide better information about these exposure measurements from three categories of metrics. We calculated metrics of exposure measurements from data series 79 very day exposed subjects , made up approximately 20, recordings of magnetic fields, measured every 30 seconds for 7 days with an E. II dosimeter. These indicators were divided into three categories : central tendency metrics, dispersion metrics and variability metrics.
We use Principal Component Analysis, a multidimensional technique to examine the relations between different exposure metrics for a group of subjects. Principal component Analysis P. The first component The third component This study confirm the need to improve exposure measurements by using at least two dimensions intensity and dispersion.
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Scientific studies were funded through a peer-reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid, and studies were initiated at the Wisconsin and Michigan ELF This document generally describes the. Some examples of the instrumentation developed in the frame of the project are reported. An innovative technique, based on the wide band interferometry is proposed to obtain detailed information concerning the several detected electromagnetic sources. Moreover, data from each station will be elaborated to investigate different sectors as the structure of ground electric conductibility, the electromagnetic phenomena connected with seismic activity, the separation of the electromagnetic fields originated in the Earth's interior and the electromagnetic phenomena originated in the magnetosphere, in the ionosphere and in the Earth-ionosphere cavity.
Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study. Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school.
A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview at birth and each year as well as medical interview at 2 years and examination at 6 years.
Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.
The present paper is dedicated to the analysis of electromagnetic turbulence in the frequency range 0. The quasimonochromatic waves are identified in the shock transition region. Their frequencies, laying in the range from 2 Hz to 6 Hz upstream the shock ramp shift to the values less than 1 Hz in the downstream region.
The amplitudes of these narrow emissions are high enough to provide the dissipation in the flow of the solar wind plasma. It is argued that spectra shapes in this frequency range 0. There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency ELF magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms.
Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models.
Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: 1 knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, 2 researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and 3 health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts.
This paper describes measurements and computational modelling carried out in the MOBI-Kids case-control study to assess the extremely low frequency ELF exposure of the brain from use of mobile and cordless phones. Four different communication systems were investigated: Global System for Mobile. The effect of electromagnetic fields on alkaline phosphatase in clonal osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. Rogers, L. Effect of electrical stimulation of canine skin, and percutaneous device-skin interface healing. In Electrical. Experimental investigations of space and spectral characteristics of the electric component of the electromagnetic waves in the outer ionosphere in the ULF f ELF f ELF waves attenuation in the time of their penetration through lower ionosphere, modified by electric field in preparing phase of the earthquakes.
Prospects of hadron and quark physics with electromagnetic probes. The last three days of the second ELFE workshop on confinement physics were devoted to the results of the work during the past year on the update and improvement of the physics case, the feasibility of the ELFE at DESY project which combines the HERA ring used as a stretcher and a low duty factor 25 GeV electron linac which could be either a section of the TESLA collider or the injector of the foreseen short wave length free electron laser as well as the development of the detectors.
The participations have been decided into 5 copies: inclusive and semi-inclusive reactions; real photon physics, exclusive reactions; color transparency; detectors. Division de Recherche Experimentale. In summary, the growth rate of the irradiated S. The decreased CFU values in all irradiated samples compared to control samples non-exposed were observed. Findings provide important insight towards selecting the optimal parameters of ELF PEMF for possible treatment of infected tissue and thus, wound healing promotion. This paper presents a platform technology with experimental results that show the scientists and biologists a way to rapidly investigate and analyze the biological effects of localized extremely low frequency ELF electromagnetic field EMF on living cells.
The proximity effect of the localized ELF -EMF on living cells is revealed using the bio-compatible microplatform on which an on-glass inductive coil array, the source of the localized ELF -EMF in micro scale, is designed, fabricated and operated with a field strength of 1. Furthermore, according to the presented dynamic model, the reduction of the proliferation can be attributed to the interference of signal transduction processes due to the tangential currents induced around the cells.
Interaction of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields with humans. At a macroscopic level, the effects of extremely low frequency ELF electromagnetic fields on humans are well understood based on fundamental physical principles, but far less is known about the nature of the interactions at a cellular or molecular level.
Current evidence suggests the effects of ELF on cellular biochemistry are due to interactions with the cell membrane. Elucidation of the mechanism that underlies this transmembrane signaling is critical for a molecular-level understanding of ELF field effects. Further research is also required to clarify a possible link between ELF exposure and increased cancer risk, since estimated ELF exposure in occupational or residential settings is much lower that the levels used in laboratory studies.
There is a clear need for additional epidemiological research in which qualitative dosimetry is used to characterize ELF exposure and careful attention is given to possible effects of confounding variables. It is well known that electromagnetic waves radiated from the earth's crust are useful for predicting earthquakes. We analyze the electromagnetic waves received at the extremely low frequency band of Hz. These observed signals contain the seismic radiation from the earth's crust, but also include several undesired signals.
Our research focuses on the signal detection technique to identify an anomalous signal corresponding to the seismic radiation in the observed signal. Conventional anomalous signal detections lack a wide applicability due to their assumptions, e. In order to overcome the limitation related to the observed signal, we proposed the anomalous signals detection based on a multi-layer neural network which is trained by digital data observed during a span of a day.
In the neural network approach, training data do not need to be recorded at the same place or the same time. However, some noises, which have a large amplitude, are detected as the anomalous signal. This paper develops a multi-layer neural network to decrease the false detection of the anomalous signal from the electromagnetic wave. The training data for the proposed network is the decomposed signal of the observed signal during several days, since the seismic radiations are often recorded from several days to a couple of weeks.
Results show that the proposed neural network is useful to achieve the accurate detection of the anomalous signal that indicates seismic activity. Electromagnetic fields may produce a variety of effects in several biological systems, including the elevation of cancer risk and reduction of cell growth. Epidemiological studies have shown weak correlations between the exposure to ELF and the incidence of several cancers, but negative studies have also been reported. Moreover, there are some reports that basic biological events such as the cell cycle and DNA replication were affected by exposure to MF.
However, to date the molecular mechanism of the MF effect on living organism is not clear. Use of C. For the past two decades, there have been concerns and controversy about the effects on human health of the increased exposure to extremely-low-frequency ELF electromagnetic fields EMFs resulting from electrification, in both residential and industrial settings. Unfortunately, however, the precise mechanisms by which ELF -EMFs exert biological effects have proven difficult to define and results of various studies have often been hard to reproduce . We believe that C.
Presently, this research is at a preliminary stage of preparation, and more detailed results on the exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to ELF -EMF radiation will be presented at the conference itself. A report published in October by a committee appointed by the US National Research Council has concluded that 'no conclusive and consistent evidence shows that exposures to residential electric and magnetic fields produce cancer, adverse neurobehavioural effects, or reproductive and developmental effects'.
However, the committee also noted that 'an association between residential wiring configurations The expertise of its 16 members covered the wide range of disciplines necessary to evaluate the extensive research literature. Research into the possible health effects of ELF magnetic fields has been driven largely by epidemiology, and a comprehensive meta-analysis of 11 childhood leukemia studies forms a key part of the report.
These studies have used several metrics to define 'exposure' of the study subjects to ELF fields. The meta-analysis combined the studies in a number of ways to evaluate their consistency and sensitivity to individual study results. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field radiation: a preliminary study case in Bangi. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields radiation is known to be hazardous if amount received is excessive.
The primary sources of ELF EMF are from the electricity supply system such as transmission line, substation, transformers and switch gears. Due to limited space, many substations were built very close to the residential area. A study was carried out in the selected houses located in Bangi, Selangor which located close to the TNB substation.
The study was made in two conditions, before the area fully occupied and after the resident moved into the house. This study was also conducted to assess the potential exposure received by personnel living in the house. This paper highlights some of the findings at the study site. In the last decades the interest to study the effect of non-ionizing radiation, such as the electromagnetic fields EMF on cellular systems has increased.
In this article the interaction between EMF and biological systems is described. An analysis of the effect of the electromagnetic stimulation at different frequencies and intensities on cell cultures is performed.
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This is reflected by a variation in the proteins expression in comparison with the group of cells no stimulated. In particular, the proteins expression shows that the ELF -EMF produce changes in the current proteins in normal or basal conditionsin the cells, that is, new proteins appear or there is evidence of an increasing in theamount of them. Cadena, M. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier; Garcia, M. Jimenez; Lopez, M. Jimenez; Espindola, M. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. Godina; Segura, M. We determined the effect of Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field ELF on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced.
The third group positive control received only electromagnetic field ELF sessions, and in the fourth group negative control , no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor. Korean Wave music, movie, and drama , recently, accept a lot of attention from Indonesian teenagers. Thanks to the power of mass media, Korean music, or we called it KPop, beginning to spread it virus throughout the world by the emerging of Fandom.
Super Junior as one of the pioneer of Korean boy band become the group that has the largest fan club in the world named ELF. This research examines the private media consumption behavior by ELF Jogja and the interaction between its members in orga Van Tongeren, M. During the study , 81 individuals and 30 companies were approached with 79 individuals and 25 companies agreeing to participate. Data were collected over a total of d, including non-occupational periods. The results showed occupational exposure to be the main determinant of overall exposure. Moderate to strong correlations were found between arithmetic mean exposure and all other metrics with the possible exception of maximum exposure.
Significant differences in exposure were found between job categories with large variability in certain categories. Highest average exposures were found for security officers arithmetic mean, AM: 0. Welding and working near high-voltage power lines were associated with elevated exposure. The aim of this study was to test whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields ELF EMFs affect health or not.
During the three months, the weight was recorded every 2 weeks, and the water intake and food intake of the animals were recorded weekly. The hematologic parameters were detected before and after the exposure, whereas blood chemistry analysis was performed every 4 weeks. Similarly, the blood chemistry including lipid profile, blood glucose, liver function and renal function of rats from the ELF EMF group showed no difference compared with rats from the control group during the three months exposure.
Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in infant incubators. The aim of the work was to present the results of measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields ELF EMF , namely the magnetic flux density, inside infant incubators, and to compare these results with the data published by other authors who point out to a possible association between leukemia or other diseases observed in newborns kept in incubators after the birth and the ELF EMF exposure in the incubator.
The measured magnetic flux densities were compared with the reference values for this frequency range indicated in the European Union EU recommendations. The repeated measurements in incubators were made with a calibrated magnetometer EFA in the frequency range of kHz. The results of many repeated measurements showing the values of magnetic flux density in modern incubators with plastic supporting frame, were compared with those obtained in old type incubators with iron skeleton.
The paper emphasizes the need to take a special care of newborns kept in incubators even if only the sub-reference values are detected. The EU reference values are intended for the adult human population. A baby in an incubator has much smaller dimensions, higher electric conductivity and maybe trigger another mechanism of response to ELF EMF than that indicated in this paper.
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Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and chronic diseases. This thesis consider two exposures from the electromagnetic spectrum extremely low-frequency magnetic fields ELF MF and ultraviolet UV radiation. The exposure prevalence of these fields is high in the general population. Most people are exposed daily to either or both types and potential health effects are of great concern.
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The aim of the thesis was to study occupationa Investigation of the radiation properties of magnetospheric ELF waves induced by modulated ionospheric heating. Electromagnetic extremely low frequency ELF waves play an important role in modulating the Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics. High-frequency HF modulated heating of the ionosphere acts as a viable means to generate artificial ELF waves.
The artificial ELF waves can reside in two different plasma regions in geo-space by propagating in the ionosphere and penetrating into the magnetosphere. As a consequence, the entire trajectory of ELF wave propagation should be considered to carefully analyze the wave radiation properties resulting from modulated ionospheric heating. We adopt a model of full wave solution to evaluate the Poynting vector of the ELF radiation field in the ionosphere, which can reflect the propagation characteristics of the radiated ELF waves along the background magnetic field and provide the initial condition of waves for ray tracing in the magnetosphere.
The results indicate that the induced ELF wave energy forms a collimated beam and the center of the ELF radiation shifts obviously with respect to the ambient magnetic field with the radiation power inversely proportional to the wave frequency. The intensity of ELF wave radiation also shows a weak correlation with the size of the radiation source or its geographical location. Furthermore, the combination of ELF propagation in the ionosphere and magnetosphere is proposed on basis of the characteristics of the ELF radiation field from the upper ionospheric boundary and ray tracing simulations are implemented to reasonably calculate magnetospheric ray paths of ELF waves induced by modulated ionospheric heating.
Full Text Available Objective. In case-control studies on brain tumors during — and — we assessed lifetime occupations in addition to exposure to different agents. No increased risk for meningioma was found in any category. Cited by. Related Articles. Paper Title Pages. Abstract: In order to discuss the propagation characteristic of shaft-rated SR electromagnetic EM field produced by the ship of multiple propellers in shallow ocean, analytical expressions of EM was derived by several time-harmonic vertical dipoles model based on single time-harmonic vertical dipole method. Firstly, the paper built the physical model of single time-harmonic vertical dipole in triple-layer mediums with uniform speed movement.
Then from two factors of phase and frequency, according to vector superposition principle, the EM expressions were solved by n time-harmonic vertical dipoles in fixed position so as to provide theoreticl law for the research of propagation characteristic. Some valuable conclusions were rearched through simulation, including finding the maxmum EM value when frequency was same and phase was zero, and frepuency variation was no-effect to the SR EM field when phase was same.
Lastly, the exprement results were anatomotic with theoreticl analysis and demonstrated the effectiveness the expressions. Authors: Jesada Sivaraks, Settapong Malisuwan. Abstract: A compressed multiple band loop antenna that has multiple superimposed compressed loops. Each compressed loop is formed from numerous segments arrayed in multiple diverse directions so that the enclosed area of that loop and the overall size of the antenna are decreased.